American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology

Differences in control of parasympathetic vasodilation between submandibular and sublingual glands in the rat.

PMID 26354847


We examined blood flow in the submandibular gland (SMGBF) and sublingual gland (SLGBF) during electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the lingual nerve (LN) in the urethane-anesthetized rats using a laser speckle imaging flow meter. LN stimulation elicited intensity- and frequency-dependent SMGBF and SLGBF increases, and the magnitude of the SMGBF increase was higher than that of the SLGBF increase. The increase in both glands was significantly inhibited by intravenous administration of the autonomic cholinergic ganglion blocker hexamethonium. The antimuscarinic agent atropine markedly inhibited the SMGBF increase and partly inhibited the SLGBF increase. The atropine-resistant SLGBF increase was significantly inhibited by infusion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor antagonist, although administration of VIP receptor antagonist alone had no effect. The recovery time to the basal blood flow level was shorter after LN stimulation than after administration of VIP. However, the recovery time after LN stimulation was significantly delayed by administration of atropine in a dose-dependent manner to the same level as after administration of VIP. Our results indicate that 1) LN stimulation elicits both a parasympathetic SMGBF increase mainly evoked by cholinergic fibers and a parasympathetic SLGBF increase evoked by cholinergic and noncholinergic fibers, and 2) VIP-ergic mechanisms are involved in the noncholinergic SLGBF increase and are activated when muscarinic mechanisms are deactivated.

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Hexamethonium bromide
Pancuronium bromide