International journal of nanomedicine

Nanolayer formation on titanium by phosphonated gelatin for cell adhesion and growth enhancement.

PMID 26366080


Phosphonated gelatin was prepared for surface modification of titanium to stimulate cell functions. The modified gelatin was synthesized by coupling with 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid using water-soluble carbodiimide and characterized by (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. Circular dichroism revealed no differences in the conformations of unmodified and phosphonated gelatin. However, the gelation temperature was changed by the modification. Even a high concentration of modified gelatin did not form a gel at room temperature. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry showed direct bonding between the phosphonated gelatin and the titanium surface after binding. The binding behavior of phosphonated gelatin on the titanium surface was quantitatively analyzed by a quartz crystal microbalance. Ellipsometry showed the formation of a several nanometer layer of gelatin on the surface. Contact angle measurement indicated that the modified titanium surface was hydrophobic. Enhancement of the attachment and spreading of MC-3T3L1 osteoblastic cells was observed on the phosphonated gelatin-modified titanium. These effects on cell adhesion also led to growth enhancement. Phosphonation of gelatin was effective for preparation of a cell-stimulating titanium surface.