Metabolomics : Official journal of the Metabolomic Society

KLK1 and ZG16B proteins and arginine-proline metabolism identified as novel targets to monitor atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndrome and recovery.

PMID 26413039


We pursued here the identification of specific signatures of proteins and metabolites in urine which respond to atherosclerosis development, acute event and/or recovery. An animal model (rabbit) of atherosclerosis was developed and molecules responding to atherosclerosis silent development were identified. Those molecules were investigated in human urine from patients suffering an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), at onset and discharge. Kallikrein1 (KLK1) and zymogen granule protein16B (ZG16B) proteins, and l-alanine, l-arabitol, scyllo-inositol, 2-hydroxyphenilacetic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid metabolites were found altered in response to atherosclerosis progression and the acute event, composing a molecular panel related to cardiovascular risk. KLK1 and ZG16B together with 3-hydroxybutyric acid, putrescine and 1-methylhydantoin responded at onset but also showed normalized levels at discharge, constituting a molecular panel to monitor recovery. The observed decreased of KLK1 is in alignment with the protective mechanism of the kallikrein-kinin system. The connection between KLK1 and ZG16B shown by pathway analysis explains reduced levels of toll-like receptor 2 described in atherosclerosis. Metabolomic analysis revealed arginine and proline metabolism, glutathione metabolism and degradation of ketone bodies as the three main pathways altered. In conclusion, two novel urinary panels of proteins and metabolites are here for the first time shown related to atherosclerosis, ACS and patient's recovery.