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Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD

Prospective association between the dietary inflammatory index and metabolic syndrome: findings from the SU.VI.MAX study.


PMID 26482566

Abstract

The prevention of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is of major concern and nutrition has been shown to modulate at least partly MetS risk. Our objective was to investigate whether a pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a higher risk of MetS and its components in a large cohort of French adults. A total of 3726 participants from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort were included in this study. The MetS status was identified at baseline and after 13 years of follow-up using self-reported medication, data from clinical investigations and biological measurements. The dietary inflammatory index (DII) was computed using repeated 24 h-dietary records (n = 10.1 ± 3.1). Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the prospective association of the DII (as Q, quartiles) with the incidence of MetS and with the traits contributing to the MetS-definition (blood pressure, glycaemia, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, waist circumference). A diet with pro-inflammatory properties, as expressed by higher DII scores, was significantly associated with a higher risk of developing the MetS (OR comparing Q4 to Q1: 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.92, P = 0.047). Moreover, higher DII scores were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (Ptrend across quartiles = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively) and triglycerides (Ptrend = 0.01), and with lower HDL-cholesterol (Ptrend = 0.03). A higher DII score was prospectively associated with a higher risk of MetS, with associations with blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. Promotion of a healthy diet exhibiting anti-inflammatory properties may contribute to prevent cardio-metabolic disorders.