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The Journal of nutrition

Dietary Sodium Butyrate Decreases Postweaning Diarrhea by Modulating Intestinal Permeability and Changing the Bacterial Communities in Weaned Piglets.


PMID 26491121

Abstract

The vast majority of substances used as alternatives to antibiotics produce inconsistent results and rarely equal the effectiveness of in-feed antibiotics. This study evaluated the effects of the combined use of sodium butyrate (SB) and reduced antibiotics in a piglet diet in promoting performance and to control weaning diarrhea. Piglets weaned at 28 d were randomly assigned to a corn-soybean meal control ration [negative control (NC)]; a similar ration with 50 mg kitasamycin/kg, 20 mg colistin sulfate/kg, and 1000 mg encapsulated SB/kg [reduced antibiotics + SB (ASB)]; or to a ration with 100 mg kitasamycin/kg and 40 mg colistin sulfate/kg [positive control (PC)] for 28 d. Performance, diarrhea incidence, intestinal permeability, and changes in the bacterial communities in the ileum and colon were determined. Weight gain and the ratio of weight gain to feed intake were significantly greater in the ASB and PC piglets than in the NC piglets (P < 0.05). Diarrhea incidence was lower in the ASB and PC piglets than in the NC piglets (P < 0.05). Urinary lactulose to mannitol ratios were 25% and 30% lower, respectively, whereas jejunal and colonic occludin protein expressions were significantly greater in the ASB and PC piglets compared with the NC piglets (P < 0.05). In the intestinal mucosa, malondialdehyde was lower in the ASB and PC piglets (by 42% and 43%, respectively), whereas tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was 63% lower in the ASB piglets and 59% lower in the PC piglets compared with the NC piglets (P < 0.05). 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis revealed a higher colonic Shannon index and a lower colonic Simpson index in the ASB and PC piglets than in the NC piglets. In addition, the ASB and PC treatments caused a striking decrease in Lactobacillaceae and a noticeable increase in Clostridiaceae in the ileal and colonic lumen, as well as increases in Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Bacteroidetes in the colonic lumen. Collectively, our results support an important role for SB in improving performance and decreasing diarrhea incidence in weaned piglets by modulation of intestinal permeability and the bacterial communities in the ileum and colon.

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