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Translational oncology

Polycomb Repressor Complex 1 Member, BMI1 Contributes to Urothelial Tumorigenesis through p16-Independent Mechanisms.


PMID 26500029

Abstract

Urothelial carcinoma (UC) causes significant morbidity and remains the most expensive cancer to treat because of the need for repeated resections and lifelong monitoring for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Novel therapeutics and stratification approaches are needed to improve the outlook for both NMIBC and muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We investigated the expression and effects of B Lymphoma Mo-MLV Insertion Region 1 (BMI1) in UC. BMI1 was found to be overexpressed in most UC cell lines and primary tumors by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to some previous reports, no association with tumor stage or grade was observed in two independent tumor panels. Furthermore, upregulation of BMI1 was detected in premalignant bladder lesions, suggesting a role early in tumorigenesis. BMI1 is not located within a common region of genomic amplification in UC. The CDKN2A locus (which encodes the p16 tumor suppressor gene) is a transcriptional target of BMI1 in some cellular contexts. In UC cell lines and primary tissues, no correlation between BMI1 and p16 expression was observed. Retroviral-mediated overexpression of BMI1 immortalized normal human urothelial cells (NHUC) in vitro and was associated with induction of telomerase activity, bypass of senescence, and repression of differentiation. The effects of BMI1 on gene expression were identified by expression microarray analysis of NHUC-BMI1. Metacore analysis of the gene expression profile implicated downstream effects of BMI1 on α4/β1 integrin-mediated adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, and CREB1-mediated transcription.

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