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Journal of biomedical nanotechnology

Regulation of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling Proteins by Osteoblasts in Titanium Nanoparticle-Induced Aseptic Loosening Model.


PMID 26502645

Abstract

Titanium (Ti)-wear particles, formed at the bone-implant interface, are responsible for aseptic loosening, which is a main cause of total joint replacement failure. There have been many studies on Ti particle-induced function changes in mono-cultured osteoblasts and synovial cells. However, little is known on extracellular matrix remodeling displayed by osteoblasts when in coexistence with Synovial cells. To further mimic the bone-implant interface environment, we firstly established a nanoscaled-Ti particle-induced aseptic loosening system by co-culturing osteoblasts and Synovial cells. We then explored the impact of the Synovial cells on Ti particle-engulfed osteoblasts in the mimicked flamed niche. The matrix metalloproteinases and lysyl oxidases expression levels, two protein families which are critical in osseointegration, were examined under induction by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. It was found that the co-culture between the osteoblasts and Synovial cells markedly increased the migration and proliferation of the osteoblasts, even in the Ti-particle engulfed osteoblasts. Importantly, the Ti-particle engulfed osteoblasts, induced by TNF-alpha after the co-culture, enhanced the release of the matrix metalloproteinases and reduced the expressions of lysyl oxidases. The regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling at the protein level was further assessed by investigations on gene expression of the matrix metalloproteinases and lysyl oxidases, which also suggested that the regulation started at the genetic level. Our research work has therefore revealed the critical role of multi cell-type interactions in the extracellular matrix remodeling within the peri-prosthetic tissues, which provides new insights on aseptic loosening and brings new clues about incomplete osseointegration between the implantation materials and their surrounding bones.