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Toxins

Mycotoxigenic fungi and natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds.


PMID 26556374

Abstract

Samples of rainbow trout feed were analyzed with the aim to determine the mycobiota composition and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins. A total of 28 samples of finished rainbow trout feed from hatcheries in the provinces of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, were studied. Fungal counts were obtained on three culture media in the ranges of <10 to 4.2 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC), <10 to 5.1 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran Chloramphenicol Peptone Agar (DCPA) and <10 to 3.6 × 10⁴ CFU/g on Dichloran 18% Glycerol Agar (DG18). The most frequent mycotoxigenic fungi were Eurotium (frequency (Fr) 25.0%), followed by Penicillium (Fr 21.4%) and Aspergillus (Fr 3.6%). The most prevalent mycotoxigenic species were E. repens (Fr 21.4%) and E. rubrum (Fr 14.3%). All samples were contaminated with mycotoxins: 64% samples were contaminated with T-2 toxin (median 70.08 ppb), 50% samples with zearalenone (median 87.97 ppb) and aflatoxins (median 2.82 ppb), 25% with ochratoxin A (median 5.26 ppb) and 3.57% samples with deoxynivalenol (median 230 ppb). Eight samples had a fumonisins contamination level below the limit of detection. Co-occurrence of six mycotoxins was determined in 7% of the samples.

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