Ecotoxicology and environmental safety

Use of the rainbow trout cell lines, RTgill-W1 and RTL-W1 to evaluate the toxic potential of benzotriazoles.

PMID 26584462


Epithelial cell lines, RTgill-W1 and RTL-W1 from respectively gill and liver of rainbow trout, Onchorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), were used to evaluate the toxic potential of six benzotriazoles (BTRs) and tolytriazole (TT), which is a commercial mixture of 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (4MBTR) and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (5MBTR). The other BTRs were 1H-benzotriazole (1H-BTR), 5-chlorobenzotriazole (5CBTR), 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (1OHBTR) and 5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzotriazole monohydrate (DM). Except for DM, all BTRs were cytotoxic at concentrations above 15mg/L and transitorily elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Neither N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) nor IM-54 inhibited cytotoxicity, suggesting that ROS were not the major cause of the cell death. Cell death was not blocked by Necrostatin nor accompanied by DNA laddering, suggesting that the cell death mechanism was neither necroptosis nor apoptosis. As judged by the comet assay, DNA strand breaks were detected with three BTRs: 4MBTR, 5MBTR and 5CBTR. In RTL-W1, the BTRs weakly induced cytochrome P4501A, suggesting that they have the potential to alter xenobiotic metabolism and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. In summary, the toxic potential of BTRs appears to be limited to only high concentrations, which are higher than have been measured in the environment to date.