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Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)

A review of the use of ethionamide and prothionamide in childhood tuberculosis.


PMID 26586647

Abstract

Ethionamide (ETH) and prothionamide (PTH), both thioamides, have proven efficacy in clinical studies and form important components for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment regimens and for treatment of tuberculous meningitis in adults and children. ETH and PTH are pro-drugs that, following enzymatic activation by mycobacterial EthA inhibit InhA, a target shared with isoniazid (INH), and subsequently inhibit mycolic acid synthesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Co-resistance to INH and ETH is conferred by mutations in the mycobacterial inhA promoter region; mutations in the ethA gene often underlie ETH and PTH monoresistance. An oral daily dose of ETH or PTH of 15-20 mg/kg with a maximum daily dose of 1000 mg is recommended in children to achieve adult-equivalent serum concentrations shown to be efficacious in adults, although information on optimal pharmacodynamic targets is still lacking. Gastrointestinal disturbances, and hypothyroidism during long-term therapy, are frequent adverse effects observed in adults and children, but are rarely life-threatening and seldom necessitate cessation of ETH therapy. More thorough investigation of the therapeutic effects and toxicity of ETH and PTH is needed in childhood TB while child-friendly formulations are needed to appropriately dose children.

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E6005
Ethionamide
C8H10N2S