Frontiers in zoology

Inferring muscular ground patterns in Bivalvia: Myogenesis in the scallop Nodipecten nodosus.

PMID 26635889


Myogenesis is currently investigated in a number of invertebrate taxa using combined techniques, including fluorescence labeling, confocal microscopy, and 3D imaging, in order to understand anatomical and functional issues and to contribute to evolutionary questions. Although developmental studies on the gross morphology of bivalves have been extensively pursued, organogenesis including muscle development has been scarcely investigated so far. The present study describes in detail myogenesis in the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) during larval and postmetamorphic stages by means of light, electron, and confocal microscopy. The veliger muscle system consists of an anterior adductor muscle, as well as four branched pairs of striated velum retractors and two pairs of striated ventral larval retractors. The pediveliger stage exhibits a considerably elaborated musculature comprising the velum retractors, the future adult foot retractor, mantle (pallial) muscles, and the anterior and posterior adductors, both composed of smooth and striated portions. During metamorphosis, all larval retractors together with the anterior adductor degenerate, resulting in the adult monomyarian condition, whereby the posterior adductor retains both myofiber types. Three muscle groups, i.e., the posterior adductor, foot retractor, and pallial muscles, have their origin prior to metamorphosis and are subsequently remodeled. Our data suggest a dimyarian condition (i.e., the presence of an anterior and a posterior adductor in the adult) as the basal condition for pectinids. Comparative analysis of myogenesis across Bivalvia strongly argues for ontogenetic and evolutionary independence of larval retractors from the adult musculature, as well as a complex set of larval retractor muscles in the last common bivalve ancestor.