International wound journal

Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 activity in keratinocytes inhibits PGE2 formation and impairs vascular endothelial growth factor release and neovascularisation in skin wounds.

PMID 26678712


Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (Cox) enzymatic activity by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) provides the molecular basis of analgesia following wounding or surgery. This study investigated the role of Cox activity in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in keratinocytes and the formation of new blood vessels in acute wounds in mice. To this end, human HaCaT keratinocytes were stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF). EGF increased Cox-1 mRNA in the presence of the constitutively expressed Cox-1 protein in keratinocytes. EGF coinduced Cox-2 and VEGF165 mRNA and protein expression and an accumulation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) in cell culture supernatants. Inhibition of Cox isozyme activity by Cox-1 and -2 siRNA or ibuprofen reduced PGE2 and VEGF165 release from keratinocytes. In a mouse model of excisional wound healing, Cox-2 and VEGF165 expression were colocalized in the granulation tissue of acute wounds. Oral treatment of mice with the Cox-1 and -2 inhibitor diclofenac was associated with reduced levels of VEGF165 protein and an impaired blood vessel formation in acute wound tissue. In summary, our data suggest that a reduction of PGE2 -triggered VEGF165 protein expression in wound keratinocytes is likely to contribute to the observed impairment of wound neovascularisation upon Cox inhibition.