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The American journal of pathology

Mutation Profiling of Usual Ductal Hyperplasia of the Breast Reveals Activating Mutations Predominantly at Different Levels of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway.


PMID 26718977

Abstract

Usual ductal hyperplasia (UDH) of the breast is generally regarded as a nonneoplastic proliferation, albeit loss of heterozygosity has long been reported in a part of these lesions. To gain deeper insights into the molecular drivers of these lesions, an extended mutation profiling was performed. The coding regions of 409 cancer-related genes were investigated by next-generation sequencing in 16 cases of UDH, nine unassociated with neoplasia (classic) and seven arising within papillomas. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation was investigated by phosphorylated AKT, mTOR, and S6 immunohistochemistry. Of 16 lesions, 10 (63%) were mutated; 56% of classic lesions were unassociated with neoplasia, and 71% of lesions arose in papillomas. Fourteen missense mutations were detected: PIK3CA [6 (43%) of 14], AKT1 [2 (14%) of 14], as well as GNAS, MTOR, PIK3R1, LPHN3, LRP1B, and IGF2R [each 1 (7%) of 14]. Phosphorylated mTOR was seen in 83% and phosphorylated S6 in 86% of evaluable lesions (phospho-AKT staining was technically uninterpretable). In conclusion, UDH displays mutations of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR axis at different levels, with PIK3R1, MTOR, and GNAS mutations not previously described. Specifically, oncogenic G-protein activation represents a yet unrecognized route to proliferation in UDH. On the basis of evidence of activating mutations, loss of heterozygosity, and a mass forming proliferation, we propose that UDH is most appropriately viewed as an early neoplastic intraductal proliferation.