Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology

Long-Term Effect of Sublingual and Subcutaneous Immunotherapy in Dust Mite-Allergic Children With Asthma/Rhinitis: A 3-Year Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

PMID 26727762


Specific allergen immunotherapy is the only treatment modality that might change the natural course of allergic diseases in childhood. We sought to prospectively compare the long-term clinical and immunological effects of sublingual (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) immunotherapy compared with pharmacotherapy alone. In this single-center, prospective randomized controlled trial, 48 children with mild persistent asthma with/without rhinitis, monosensitized to house dust mites (HDMs) were followed for 3 years. At baseline and years 1 and 3 of follow-up, patients were evaluated and compared for total rhinitis (TRSS) and asthma (TASS) symptom scores, total symptom scores (TSS), total medication scores (TMS), safety profiles, skin-nasal-bronchial reactivity, and immunological parameters. A significant reduction was observed in TASS for both HDM-SCIT and HDM-SLIT at year 3 of treatment compared with baseline and controls (P<.05 for both), with significant improvement in rhinitis symptoms for both groups compared with controls (P=.01 for both). TSS decreased significantly in both HDM-SCIT and HDM-SLIT at year 3 compared with baseline (P=.007 and P=.04, respectively) and controls (P<.01 for both). A significant reduction in TMS was observed in HDM-SCIT and HDM-SLIT compared with baseline and controls (P=.01 in all cases), with a reduction in skin reactivity to HDM (P<.05). Finally, a significant increase in allergen specific IgG4 was observed in the SCIT group at year 3 compared with baseline, the SLIT group, and controls (P<.001 in all cases). HDM-sensitized asthmatic children treated for at least 3 years with either SCIT or SLIT showed sustained clinical improvement.