PLoS pathogens

Replication of an Autonomous Human Parvovirus in Non-dividing Human Airway Epithelium Is Facilitated through the DNA Damage and Repair Pathways.

PMID 26765330


Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) belongs to the genus Bocaparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family, and is an emerging human pathogenic respiratory virus. In vitro, HBoV1 infects well-differentiated/polarized primary human airway epithelium (HAE) cultured at an air-liquid interface (HAE-ALI). Although it is well known that autonomous parvovirus replication depends on the S phase of the host cells, we demonstrate here that the HBoV1 genome amplifies efficiently in mitotically quiescent airway epithelial cells of HAE-ALI cultures. Analysis of HBoV1 DNA in infected HAE-ALI revealed that HBoV1 amplifies its ssDNA genome following a typical parvovirus rolling-hairpin DNA replication mechanism. Notably, HBoV1 infection of HAE-ALI initiates a DNA damage response (DDR) with activation of all three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PI3KKs). We found that the activation of the three PI3KKs is required for HBoV1 genome amplification; and, more importantly, we identified that two Y-family DNA polymerases, Pol η and Pol κ, are involved in HBoV1 genome amplification. Overall, we have provided an example of de novo DNA synthesis (genome amplification) of an autonomous parvovirus in non-dividing cells, which is dependent on the cellular DNA damage and repair pathways.