Analytica chimica acta

Simple and accurate measurement of carbamazepine in surface water by use of porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction coupled with isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

PMID 26920772


To achieve fast and accurate analysis of carbamazepine in surface water, we developed a novel porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) method, followed by liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS/MS) analysis. The μ-SPE device (∼0.8 × 1 cm) was fabricated by heat-sealing edges of a polypropylene membrane sheet to devise a bag enclosing the sorbent. The analytes (both carbamazepine and isotope-labelled carbamazepine) were first extracted by μ-SPE device in the sample (10 mL) via agitation, then desorbed in an organic solvent (1 mL) via ultrasonication. Several parameters such as organic solvent for pre-conditioning of μ-SPE device, amount of sorbent, adsorption time, and desorption solvent and time were investigated to optimize the μ-SPE efficiency. The optimized method has limits of detection and quantitation estimated to be 0.5 ng L(-1) and 1.6 ng L(-1), respectively. Surface water samples spiked with different amounts of carbamazepine (close to 20, 500, and 1600 ng L(-1), respectively) were analysed for the validation of method precision and accuracy. Good precision was obtained as demonstrated by relative standard deviations of 0.7% for the samples with concentrations of 500 and 1600 ng kg(-1), and 5.8% for the sample with concentration of 20 ng kg(-1). Good accuracy was also demonstrated by the relative recoveries in the range of 96.7%-103.5% for all samples with uncertainties of 1.1%-5.4%. Owing to the same chemical properties of carbamazepine and isotope-labelled carbamazepine, the isotope ratio in the μ-SPE procedure was accurately controlled. The use of μ-SPE coupled with IDMS analysis significantly facilitated the fast and accurate measurement of carbamazepine in surface water.

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