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Developmental neurobiology

mTOR kinase is needed for the development and stabilization of dendritic arbors in newly born olfactory bulb neurons.


PMID 27008592

Abstract

Neurogenesis is the process of neuron generation, which occurs not only during embryonic development but also in restricted niches postnatally. One such region is called the subventricular zone (SVZ), which gives rise to new neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). Neurons that are born postnatally migrate through more complex territories and integrate into fully functional circuits. Therefore, differences in the differentiation of embryonic and postnatally born neurons may exist. Dendritogenesis is an important process for the proper formation of future neuronal circuits. Dendritogenesis in embryonic neurons cultured in vitro was shown to depend on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Still unknown, however, is whether mTOR could regulate the dendritic arbor morphology of SVZ-derived postnatal OB neurons under physiological conditions in vivo. The present study used in vitro cultured and differentiated SVZ-derived neural progenitors and found that both mTOR complex 1 and mTOR complex 2 were required for the dendritogenesis of SVZ-derived neurons. Furthermore, using a combination of in vivo electroporation of neural stem cells in the SVZ and genetic and pharmacological inhibition of mTOR, it was found that mTOR was crucial for the growth of basal and apical dendrites in postnatally born OB neurons under physiological conditions and contributed to the stabilization of their basal dendrites. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1308-1327, 2016.