Plant cell reports

PIN2-like proteins may contribute to the regulation of morphogenetic processes during spermatogenesis in Chara vulgaris.

PMID 27068826


PIN2-like auxin transporters are expressed, preferentially in a polarized manner, in antheridial cells of freshwater green alga Chara vulgaris , considered to be the closest relative of the present-day land plants. Chara vulgaris represents a group of advanced multicellular green algae that are considered as the closest relatives of the present-day land plants. A highly specialized structure of its male sex organs (antheridia) includes filaments consisting of generative cells, which after a series of synchronous divisions transform into mature sperm, and non-generative cells comprising outer shield cells, cylindrical manubria, and central complex of capitular cells from which antheridial filaments arise. Immunofluorescence observations indicate that PIN2-like proteins (PIN2-LPs), recognized by antibodies against PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) auxin transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana, are expressed in both types of antheridial cells and, in most of them, preferentially accumulate in a polarized manner. The appearance of PIN2-LPs in germ-line cells is strictly confined to the proliferative period of spermatogenesis and their quantities increase steadily till antheridial filaments reach the 16-celled stage. An enhanced level of PIN2-LPs observed in the central cell walls separating two asynchronously developing parts of antheridial filaments (characterized by the plugged plasmodesmata) is correlated with an enhanced deposition of callose. Intense PIN2-LPs immunofluorescence maintained in the capitular cells and its altering polarity in manubria suggest a pivotal role of these cells in the regulation of auxin transport directionality during the whole time of antheridial ontogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining of IAA revealed a clear-cut correspondence between localization sites of auxins and PIN2-LPs. It seems probable then that a supplementary developmental mechanism has evolved in Chara, by which all antheridial elements may be integrated at the supra-cellular level via plasma membrane-targeted PIN2-LPs and auxin-mediated processes.

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