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Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)

Chymotrypsin Enhances Soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 1 Production Through Protease-Activated Receptor 2 in Placenta-Derived Immortalized Human Trophoblast Cells.


PMID 27140908

Abstract

The production of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT1) by exogenous chymotrypsin in trophoblast cells through protease-activated receptor (PAR) 2 was investigated to identify the role of a chymotrypsin-like serine protease in preeclampsia (PE) pathogenesis. We evaluated the expression of chymotrypsin, FLT1, and sFLT1 in monolayers of immortalized human trophoblast cells derived from placenta (TCL-1 cells). To investigate whether chymotrypsin enhances the production and release of sFLT1 through PAR-2, we examined changes in sFLT1 protein levels in conditioned medium by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and sFLT1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by real-time polymerase chain reaction in TCL-1 cells treated with exogenous chymotrypsin in the presence or absence of a PAR-2 antagonist or a chymotrypsin inhibitor (TPCK). We also examined changes in PAR-2 expression in TCL-1 cells treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α in the presence or absence of a polyclonal anti-TNF-α antibody. Western blot analysis showed that TCL-1 trophoblast cells expressed chymotrypsin, FLT1, and sFLT1. Compared with the control cells, the sFLT1 level in the conditioned medium and sFLT1 mRNA level in cells were both significantly enhanced when treated with a PAR-2 agonist or chymotrypsin for 6 hours. In contrast, the sFLT1 level in the medium and sFLT1 mRNA level in cells treated with a PAR-2 agonist or chymotrypsin were suppressed in the presence of a PAR-2 antagonist or a chymotrypsin inhibitor. The PAR-2 expression was upregulated by TNF-α, which was suppressed in the presence of TNF-α antibodies. These results indicate that chymotrypsin-like serine protease enhances sFLT1 production through PAR-2 in trophoblast cells and thus plays an important additional role in PE pathogenesis.

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