Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)

Urinary biomarkers for the differentiation of prerenal and intrinsic pediatric acute kidney injury.

PMID 27286687


Urinary calprotectin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) have recently been identified as promising biomarkers for the differentiation of prerenal and intrinsic acute kidney injury (AKI) in adults. In the study reported here we examined the diagnostic accuracy of calprotectin, NGAL, and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) in pediatric patients. Urinary calprotectin, NGAL, and KIM-1 concentrations were assessed in a study population of 139 pediatric subjects including 39 patients with intrinsic AKI, 14 with prerenal AKI, and 86 non-AKI subjects. Median urinary calprotectin and NGAL concentrations were higher in patients with intrinsic AKI than in those with prerenal AKI (calprotectin by 22-fold, NGAL by 9-fold). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses for the differentiation of intrinsic and prerenal AKI resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.90 [95xa0% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.98] for calprotectin and 0.73 (95xa0% CI 0.58-0.87) for NGAL. Median urinary KIM-1 concentrations were not significantly different between patients with prerenal AKI and those with intrinsic disease (P = 0.98; AUC 0.50, 95xa0% CI, 0.35-0.65). The AUC for the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) and proteinuria was 0.78 (95xa0% CI 0.63-0.92) and 0.77 (CI 0.65-0.90), respectively. Urinary calprotectin outperforms NGAL, KIM-1, FENa, and proteinuria as a biomarker for the differentiation of prerenal and intrinsic AKI in pediatric patients with a high diagnostic accuracy.