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Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

Waste grape skins: evaluation of safety aspects for the production of functional powders and extracts for the food sector.


PMID 27295010

Abstract

Skin powders and aqueous alcohol extracts were obtained from waste marcs from different grape varieties (Barbera, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Moscato and Müller-Thurgau). Both skins and extracts were analysed for the content of chemical contaminants: ochratoxin A (OTA), biogenic amines (BIAs), pesticides and metals. OTA was detected in low concentrations in Barbera, Moscato and Nebbiolo skins, but only in Barbera and Moscato extracts. Cadaverine, putrescine, ethanolamine and ethylamine were found in extracts at very low levels, while potential allergenic amines, tyramine and histamine, were never detected. Different pesticides were present in both skins and extracts. Pb and Cd were found in trace only in the powders, and K, Ca and Mg were the most abundant elements in both skin powders and extracts. Concentrations of the different contaminants were related to fibre content or total phenolics content of powders and extracts, respectively, in order to evaluate their use in the food sector.

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