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Archives of biochemistry and biophysics

Release of iron from ferritin by divicine, isouramil, acid-hydrolyzed vicine, and dialuric acid and initiation of lipid peroxidation.


PMID 2730003

Abstract

Release of iron from ferritin by the polyhydroxypyrimidines, dialuric acid, isouramil, divicine, and acid-hydrolyzed vicine, was measured. Iron was released at fast initial rates which gradually declined to zero in 10 min. All the compounds were better reductants for ferritin-iron under nitrogen than in air. The effects of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione on both initial rates and total iron released over 30 min in air were determined. Major effects were inhibition by superoxide dismutase for divicine and isouramil and enhancement for dialuric acid and acid-hydrolyzed vicine. Glutathione promoted increased iron release that was further enhanced by superoxide dismutase. These increases were particularly striking over the longer time period. Catalase, in all cases, gave modest enhancement. Enhanced iron release correlated with inhibition of pyrimidine oxidation. The results indicate that the reduced form of each pyrimidine releases ferritin iron directly, and the effects of the antioxidants are mainly to maintain or regenerate the reduced pyrimidines. A combination of each pyrimidine and ferritin caused peroxidation of phopholipid liposomes, above that seen with the pyrimidines and adventitious iron. Glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase modulated lipid peroxidation in a way consistent with their effects being mainly on ferritin-iron release. On the basis of our findings, we propose that the release and subsequent reactions of ferritin-iron may contribute to the toxicity of these compounds. Although glutathione and superoxide dismutase together efficiently inhibit redox cycling and H2O2 production from the pyrimidines, this combination maximized iron release from ferritin and ferritin-dependent lipid peroxidation.

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