Journal of cellular biochemistry

Gremlin2 Suppression Increases the BMP-2-Induced Osteogenesis of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via the BMP-2/Smad/Runx2 Signaling Pathway.

PMID 27335248


Osteoblasts are essential for maintaining skeletal architecture and modulating bone microenvironment homeostasis. From numerous associated investigations, the BMP-2 pathway has been well-defined as a vital positive modulator of bone homeostasis. Gremlin2 (Grem2) is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists. However, the effect of Grem2 on the BMP-2-induced osteogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) remains ambiguous. This study aimed to analyze the procedure in vitro and in vivo. The differentiation of hBMSCs was assessed by determining the expression levels of several osteoblastic genes, as well as the enzymatic activity and calcification of alkaline phosphatase. We found that Grem2 expression was upregulated by BMP-2 within the range of 0-1 μg/mL, and significant increases were evident at 48, 72, and 96 h after BMP-2 treatment. Si-Grem2 increased the BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs, whereas overexpression of Grem2 had the opposite trend. The result was confirmed using a defective femur model. We also discovered that the BMP-2/Smad/Runx2 pathway played an important role in the process. This study showed that si-Grem2 increased the BMP-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs via the BMP-2/Smad/Runx2 pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 286-297, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.