Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

Active Caspase-1 Induces Plasma Membrane Pores That Precede Pyroptotic Lysis and Are Blocked by Lanthanides.

PMID 27385778


Canonical inflammasome activation induces a caspase-1/gasdermin D (Gsdmd)-dependent lytic cell death called pyroptosis that promotes antimicrobial host defense but may contribute to sepsis. The nature of the caspase-1-dependent change in plasma membrane (PM) permeability during pyroptotic progression remains incompletely defined. We assayed propidium(2+) (Pro(2+)) influx kinetics during NLRP3 or Pyrin inflammasome activation in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) as an indicator of this PM permeabilization. BMDMs were characterized by rapid Pro(2+) influx after initiation of NLRP3 or Pyrin inflammasomes by nigericin (NG) or Clostridium difficile toxin B (TcdB), respectively. No Pro(2+) uptake in response to NG or TcdB was observed in Casp1(-/-) or Asc(-/-) BMDMs. The cytoprotectant glycine profoundly suppressed NG and TcdB-induced lysis but not Pro(2+) influx. The absence of Gsdmd expression resulted in suppression of NG-stimulated Pro(2+) influx and pyroptotic lysis. Extracellular La(3+) and Gd(3+) rapidly and reversibly blocked the induced Pro(2+) influx and markedly delayed pyroptotic lysis without limiting upstream inflammasome assembly and caspase-1 activation. Thus, caspase-1-driven pyroptosis requires induction of initial prelytic pores in the PM that are dependent on Gsdmd expression. These PM pores also facilitated the efflux of cytosolic ATP and influx of extracellular Ca(2+) Although lanthanides and Gsdmd deletion both suppressed PM pore activity and pyroptotic lysis, robust IL-1β release was observed in lanthanide-treated BMDMs but not in Gsdmd-deficient cells. This suggests roles for Gsdmd in both passive IL-1β release secondary to pyroptotic lysis and in nonlytic/nonclassical IL-1β export.

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Suberic acid bis(N-hydroxysuccinimide ester), ≥95%, powder