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European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology

Molecular characterisation and antifungal susceptibility of clinical Cryptococcus deuterogattii (AFLP6/VGII) isolates from Southern Brazil.


PMID 27477855

Abstract

Cryptococcosis, caused by Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, is an emerging disease that was initially found in (sub)tropical regions but recently expanded to temperate regions. Cryptococcus gattii s.l. infections are mostly encountered in healthy individuals, frequently affecting both lungs and the central nervous system (CNS). Usually, C. gattii s.l. is less susceptible to antifungal compounds than its counterpart, C. neoformans s.l. We studied 18 clinical C. gattii s.l. isolates with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, mating-typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antifungal susceptibility testing. All isolates were C. deuterogattii (genotype AFLP6/VGII), 14 were mating-type α and four were type a. Amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole showed high activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of 0.063-0.25, 0.031-0.25, 0.031-0.25, 0.031-0.25 and <0.016-0.25xa0μgxa0mL(-1), respectively. Fluconazole and flucytosine had high geometric mean MICs of 2.07 and 3.7xa0μgxa0mL(-1), respectively. Most cases occurred in immunocompetent patients (n = 10; 55.6xa0%) and CNS involvement was the most common clinical presentation (n = 14; 77.8xa0%). Three patients (16.7xa0%) showed sequelae, hyperreflexia, dysarthria, diadochokinesia, anosmia and upper limb weakness. In conclusion, all infections were caused by C. deuterogattii (AFLP6/VGII) and the majority of patients were immunocompetent, with the CNS as the most affected site. All antifungal drugs had high in vitro activity against C. deuterogattii isolates, except fluconazole and flucytosine.

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