Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP

Morphological and functional alteration of erythrocyte ghosts and giant unilamellar vesicles caused by Vipera latifi venom.

PMID 27558241


Snake bites are an endemic public health problem in Iran, both in rural and urban area. Viper venom as a hemolytic biochemical "cocktail" of toxins, primarily cause to the systemic alteration of blood cells. In the sixties and seventies, human erythrocytes were extensively studied, but the mechanical and chemical stresses commonly exerted on red blood cells continue to attract interest of scientists for the study of membrane structure and function. Here, we monitor the effect of Vipera latifi venom on human erythrocytes ghost membranes using phase contrast and fluorescent microscopy and changes in ATPase activity under snake venom influence in vitro. The ion pumps [Na(+),K(+)]-ATPase and (Ca(2+)+Mg(2+))-ATPase plays a pivotal role in the active transport of certain cations and maintenance of intracellular electrolyte homeostasis. We also describe the interaction of Vipera latifi (VL) venom with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of the native phospholipid mixtures visualized by the membrane fluorescence probe, ANS, used to assess the state of membrane and specifically mark the phospholipid domains.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

Ouabain, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
C29H44O12 · 8H2O