Molecular and cellular endocrinology

GLP-1 analogue recovers impaired insulin secretion from human islets treated with palmitate via down-regulation of SOCS2.

PMID 27566229


Elevated circulating palmitate levels have been connected with type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1 has favorable effects on beta-cells function. The aim was to identify mechanisms for decreased GSIS after long-term palmitate exposure and restoration by GLP-1 by analyzing changes in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway signaling. Insulin secretory response to 20 mM glucose was attenuated after 7 days in islets exposed to palmitate but inclusion of exendin-4 restored secretion. Palmitate treatment altered genes of several GPCR signaling pathways including inflammatory pathways with up-regulated IL-1B, SOCS1 and SOCS2 transcript levels. Protein level of SOCS2 was also up-regulated by palmitate and accompanied by down-regulation of pAkt(T308), which was restored by exendin-4 treatment. When SOCS2 was knocked down, palmitate-induced down-regulation of IRS-1 and pAkt(T308) was prevented and GSIS, proinsulin to insulin ratio and apoptosis was restored. Long-term palmitate treatment up-regulates SOCS2 and reduces PI3K activity, thereby impairing GSIS. GLP-1 reverts the palmitate-induced effects.