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Molecular pharmacology

Sirtuin 1 Mediates the Actions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ on the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Triggered Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.


PMID 27573670

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) has been implicated in vascular pathophysiology. However, its functions in atherogenic changes of the vascular wall have not been fully elucidated. PPARδ activated by GW501516 (2-[2-methyl-4-[[4-methyl-2-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,3-thiazol-5-yl]methylsulfanyl]phenoxy]acetic acid) significantly inhibited the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) triggered by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). These GW501516-mediated effects were significantly reversed by PPARδ-targeting small-interfering RNA (siRNA), indicating that PPARδ is involved in the action of GW501516. The antiproliferative effect of GW501516 was directly linked to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 to S phase transition, which was followed by the down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 along with increased levels of p21 and p53. In VSMCs treated with GW501516, the expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) mRNA and protein was time-dependently increased. This GW501516-mediated up-regulation of SIRT1 expression was also demonstrated even in the presence of oxLDL. In addition, GW501516-dependent inhibition of oxLDL-triggered migration and proliferation of VSMCs was almost completely abolished in the presence of SIRT1-targeting siRNA. These effects of GW501516 on oxLDL-triggered phenotypic changes of VSMCs were also demonstrated via activation or inhibition of SIRT1 activity by resveratrol or sirtinol, respectively. Finally, gain or loss of SIRT1 function imitated the action of PPARδ on oxLDL-triggered migration and proliferation of VSMCs. Taken together, these observations indicate that PPARδ-dependent up-regulation of SIRT1 contributes to the antiatherogenic activities of PPARδ by suppressing the migration and proliferation of VSMCs linked to vascular diseases such as restenosis and atherosclerosis.

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