Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

ACOX2 deficiency: A disorder of bile acid synthesis with transaminase elevation, liver fibrosis, ataxia, and cognitive impairment.

PMID 27647924


Acyl CoA Oxidase 2 (ACOX2) encodes branched-chain acyl-CoA oxidase, a peroxisomal enzyme believed to be involved in the metabolism of branched-chain fatty acids and bile acid intermediates. Deficiency of this enzyme has not been described previously. We report an 8-y-old male with intermittently elevated transaminase levels, liver fibrosis, mild ataxia, and cognitive impairment. Exome sequencing revealed a previously unidentified homozygous premature termination mutation (p.Y69*) in ACOX2 Immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of ACOX2 expression in the patient's liver, and biochemical analysis showed marked elevation of intermediate bile acids upstream of ACOX2. These findings define a potentially treatable inborn error of bile acid biosynthesis caused by ACOX2 deficiency.