Physiological reports

Exercise training increases protein O-GlcNAcylation in rat skeletal muscle.

PMID 27664189


Protein O-GlcNAcylation has emerged as an important intracellular signaling system with both physiological and pathophysiological functions, but the role of protein O-GlcNAcylation in skeletal muscle remains elusive. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that protein O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic signaling system in skeletal muscle in exercise and disease. Immunoblotting showed different protein O-GlcNAcylation pattern in the prototypical slow twitch soleus muscle compared to fast twitch EDL from rats, with greater O-GlcNAcylation level in soleus associated with higher expression of the modulating enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), O-GlcNAcase (OGA), and glutamine fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase isoforms 1 and 2 (GFAT1, GFAT2). Six weeks of exercise training by treadmill running, but not an acute exercise bout, increased protein O-GlcNAcylation in rat soleus and EDL There was a striking increase in O-GlcNAcylation of cytoplasmic proteins ~50 kDa in size that judged from mass spectrometry analysis could represent O-GlcNAcylation of one or more key metabolic enzymes. This suggests that cytoplasmic O-GlcNAc signaling is part of the training response. In contrast to exercise training, postinfarction heart failure (HF) in rats and humans did not affect skeletal muscle O-GlcNAcylation level, indicating that aberrant O-GlcNAcylation cannot explain the skeletal muscle dysfunction in HF Human skeletal muscle displayed extensive protein O-GlcNAcylation that by large mirrored the fiber-type-related O-GlcNAcylation pattern in rats, suggesting O-GlcNAcylation as an important signaling system also in human skeletal muscle.