Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A

Correlations between macrophage polarizing cytokines, inflammatory mediators, osteoclast activity, and toll-like receptors in tissues around aseptically loosened hip implants.

PMID 27669374


Aseptic loosening and osteolysis of joint replacements are driven by macrophage-mediated inflammatory reactions to implant-derived wear debris, but many aspects of these events remain poorly characterized. To better understand the relationships among inflammatory and chemotactic mediators, macrophage phenotype and polarizing cytokines, osteoclast activity, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the pathogenesis of aseptic loosening, we determined how the relative expressions of these factors in the peri-implant tissues correlate to each other and to the life span of the implants using Pearson correlation. The expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and chemokines showed positive correlations among themselves, and with TLR4. Furthermore, M1-polarizing IFN-γ showed positive correlations with a number of pro-inflammatory and chemotactic mediators, whereas M2-polarizing IL-4 showed no such association. IL-8 expression significantly correlated with early time to revision. Similar trends were observed for TNF-α, IFN-γ, and CCL3, while the opposite was detected for IL-4. However, none of the inflammatory mediators correlated with the markers of osteoclast activity or the RANKL/OPG ratio. The results highlight the importance of the inflammatory mediators, IFN-γ and TLR4, in the pathogenesis of aseptic loosening; increased pro-inflammatory status was associated with early time to revision, whereas IL-4 correlated with longer implant survival. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 454-463, 2017.