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Journal of virology

Altering the Anti-inflammatory Lipoxin Microenvironment: a New Insight into Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Pathogenesis.


PMID 27681120

Abstract

Lipoxins are host anti-inflammatory molecules that play a vital role in restoring tissue homeostasis. The efficacy of lipoxins and their analog epilipoxins in treating inflammation and its associated diseases has been well documented. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) are two well-known inflammation related diseases caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Controlling inflammation is one of the strategies adopted to treat KS and PEL, a primary motivation for exploring and evaluating the therapeutic potential of using lipoxins. This study documents how KSHV manipulates and downregulates the secretion of the anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 in host cells and the viral factors involved in this process using in vitro KS and PEL cells as models. The presence of the lipoxin A4 receptor/formyl peptidyl receptor (ALX/FPR) in KS patient tissue sections and in vitro KS and PEL cell models offers a novel possibility for treating KS and PEL with lipoxins. Treating de novo KSHV-infected endothelial cells with lipoxin and epilipoxin creates an anti-inflammatory environment by decreasing the levels of NF-κB, AKT, ERK1/2, COX-2, and 5-lipoxygenase. Lipoxin treatment on CRISPR/CAS9 technology-mediated ALX/FPR gene deletion revealed the importance of the lipoxin receptor ALX for effective lipoxin signaling. A viral microRNA (miRNA) cluster was identified as the primary factor contributing to the downregulation of lipoxin A4 secretion in host cells. The KSHV miRNA cluster probably targets enzyme 15-lipoxygenase, which is involved in lipoxin A4 synthesis. This study provides a new insight into the potential treatment of KS and PEL using nature's own anti-inflammatory molecule, lipoxin. KSHV infection has been shown to upregulate several host proinflammatory factors, which aid in its survival and pathogenesis. The influence of KSHV infection on anti-inflammatory molecules is not well studied. Since current treatment methods for KS and PEL are fraught with unwanted side effects and low efficiency, the search for new therapeutics is therefore imperative. The use of nature's own molecule lipoxin as a drug is promising. This study opens up new domains in KSHV research focusing on how the virus modulates lipoxin secretion and warrants further investigation of the therapeutic potential of lipoxin using in vitro cell models for KS and PEL.