Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis

NQO1 and CYP450 reductase decrease the systemic exposure of rifampicin-quinone and mediate its redox cycle in rats.

PMID 27693756


Rifampicin (RIF) is used in regimens for infections caused by Mycobacteria accompanied by serious adverse reactions. Rifampicin-quinone (RIF-Q) is a major autoxidation product of RIF. It is not clear whether RIF-Q plays a role in RIF induced adverse reactions. Investigation of the systemic exposure of RIF-Q is helpful to better understand the role of RIF-Q in RIF induced adverse reactions. In this study, a simple and reproducible high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method involving a procedure to prevent the RIF from oxidation for simultaneous quantification of RIF and RIF-Q in rat plasma has been developed and validated, and applied to elucidate the systemic exposure of RIF-Q in rats. The pharmacokinetics data showed that the systemic exposure of RIF-Q was very low (0.67% of RIF, AUC0-24) in rats after oral administration of RIF. However, RIF-Q may undergo the redox cycle in vivo by the evidence that the majority of RIF-Q was reduced to RIF after an oral dose of RIF-Q. Pretreatment with the NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) specific inhibitor dicoumarol and/or cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium suppressed the redox cycle and significantly increased the systemic exposure of RIF-Q. The inhibitors also attenuated the redox cycle induced reactive oxygen species formation and cytotoxicity in RIF-Q-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicate that NQO1 and CPR play an important role in redox cycle of RIF-Q and may thus contribute to RIF-induced adverse reactions.