The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology

Inhibition of human glioma cell proliferation by altered Bax/Bcl-2-p53 expression and apoptosis induction by Rhaponticum carthamoides extracts from transformed and normal roots.

PMID 27696406


The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effect and apoptotic activity of Rhaponticum carthamoides transformed root (TR) and root of soil-grown plant (NR) extracts in a human glioma primary cells. The effect of these root extracts on cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2, Bax and p53) were also examined. Cytotoxic activity of root extracts was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were determined by flow cytometry. Expression levels of apoptosis-related gene were analysed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. ΔΨm was examined by the use of JC-1 reagent. Rhaponticum carthamoides root extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in human glioma cells. The root extracts were found to up-regulate the pro-apoptotic Bax protein and down-regulate the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, consequently increasing the ratios of Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels. Moreover, an increase of the p53 protein level and reduction of ΔΨm in glioma cells were observed after treatment with NR and TR extracts. The results of this study may offer a new insight into the potential anticancer activity of R. carthamoides root extracts.