Biochemical and biophysical research communications

Thioredoxin interacting protein mediates lipid-induced impairment of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

PMID 27702549


Insulin resistance (IR) is an important determinant of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Free fatty acids (FFAs) induce IR by various mechanisms. A surfeit of circulating FFA leads to intra-myocellular lipid accumulation that induces mitochondrial ROS generation and worsens IR. However, the molecular mechanisms behind are unclear. We identified thioredoxin interacting protein (TxNIP), which is overexpressed in T2DM, to be a promoter of ROS-induced IR. We observed upregulation of TxNIP upon palmitate treatment in skeletal muscle cells that led to ROS generation and Glut-4 downregulation resulting in impaired glucose-uptake. FFA-induced overexpression of TxNIP gene was mediated through the activation of its bona-fide trans activator, ChREBP. Further, Palmitate-induced impairment in AMPK-SIRT-1 pathway resulted in overexpression of ChREBP. While Fenofibrate, abrogated PA-induced TxNIP expression and ROS generation in skeletal muscle cells, Saroglitazar, a dual PPARα/γ-agonist, not only inhibited PA-induced TXNIP expression but also led to greater improvement in glucose uptake. Taken together, TxNIP appears to be an important factor in FFA-induced ROS generation and IR in skeletal muscle cells, which can be modulated for the management of this complex disorder.