Current eye research

Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Triggers TNFα Induced-Necroptosis in Rat Retina.

PMID 27732109


A recent study revealed a novel form of cell death, termed necroptosis, or programmed necrosis. Previous research indicated that after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury to the retina, Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) is increased, which may activate necroptosis. This study observed macroglial cell activation, and in particular, astrocyte activation, after the release of TNFα and other necroptosis factors in the rat retina due to IR. IR was induced in the retinas of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by increasing the intraocular pressure to 160 mmHg and then allowing reperfusion. In addition, to inhibit necroptosis, Nec-1 (necrostatin-1) was injected intravitreally after IR. Rats were sacrificed after reperfusion at 12 hours, 1, 3, and 5 days, and 1 and 2 weeks. Retinas from each time point were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB) to identify the initiator of necroptosis, TNFα, the expression of necroptosis factors, such as receptor interacting protein (RIP) 1, 3, and inactive caspase 8, and Brn3a. Cell death in the IR-injured retinas was identified by cell counting. We found decreased retinal cell numbers in the inner and outer nuclear layers (INL and ONL), as well as in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Increased glial cell activation was detected by using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) IHC. TNFα, RIP1, RIP3, and inactive caspase 8 were mainly expressed in the GCL after IR, as determined by IHC and WB. Nec-1 inhibited RIP1, a necroptosis factor, indicating protection against retinal cell loss after IR injury. We showed that IR injury triggered increases in both activation of astrocytes and the expression of TNFα. In addition, TNFα, which was activated by IR, triggered the release of necroptosis factors, particularly, in GCL. Inhibition of necroptosis using Nec-1 decreased the level of RIP1 and retinal cell loss in IR-injured retinas.

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Necrostatin-1, ≥98% (HPLC)