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Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry

Use of a versatile, easy, and rapid atmospheric monitor (VERAM) passive samplers for pesticide determination in continental waters.


PMID 27734135

Abstract

The versatile, easy, and rapid atmospheric monitor (VERAM), a passive sampler device widely used for air monitoring, was evaluated as passive sampler for the determination of 23 pesticides in water. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection was employed for determination of pesticides after microwave-assisted-extraction and specific clean-up of deployed samplers. The proposed methodology reached method detection levels from 2 to 10 ng pesticide per sampler. Sampling rate (Rs) was determined for every pesticide from an uptake isotherm study performed at three different concentration levels (50, 125, and 250 ng L-1). The obtained RS values ranged from 0.06 to 0.76 L d-1. The obtained limits of detection for a 24-h passive sampling were from 4 to 50 ng L-1. The effect of water parameters, such as temperature, pH, and ionic strength, were evaluated for their effect on pesticides retention using VERAMs. Pesticide RS values were independent of the water composition and increased on increasing temperature. Finally, the VERAM uptake was compared with that obtained using classic semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). This study is the first precedent for the use of VERAMs as passive samplers for the adsorption and concentration of pesticides in water and it confirms the satisfactory analytical figures of merit of VERAM as passive sampler of water. Graphical Abstract Scheme of water sampling of pesticides using versatile, easy, and rapid atmospheric monitor (VERAM) passive samplers.

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