Journal of medicinal food

Influence of Sulforaphane Metabolites on Activities of Human Drug-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 and Determination of Sulforaphane in Human Liver Cells.

PMID 27779894


The influence of metabolites of sulforaphane, natural compounds present in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis italica) and in other cruciferous vegetables, on drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human liver microsomes and possible entry of sulforaphane into human hepatic cells were investigated. Metabolites studied are compounds derived from sulforaphane by the mercapturic acid pathway (conjugation with glutathione and by following reactions), namely sulforaphane glutathione and sulforaphane cysteine conjugates and sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine. Their possible effect on four drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes, CYP3A4 (midazolam 1'-hydroxylation), CYP2D6 (bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation), CYP1A2 (7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation), and CYP2B6 (7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin O-deethylation), was tested. Inhibition of four prototypical CYP activities by sulforaphane metabolites was studied in pooled human liver microsomes. Sulforaphane metabolites did not considerably affect biological function of drug-metabolizing CYPs in human liver microsomes except for CYP2D6, which was found to be inhibited down to 73-78% of the original activity. Analysis of the entry of sulforaphane into human hepatocytes was done by cell disruption by sonication, methylene chloride extraction, and modified high-performance liquid chromatography method. The results have shown penetration of sulforaphane into the human hepatic cells.