Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes

Fate of the (14)C-labeled herbicide prosulfocarb in a soil and in a sediment-water system.

PMID 27820683


The fate of (14)C-labeled herbicide prosulfocarb was studied in an agricultural soil and in a sediment-water system, the sediment part of which was derived from Yangtze Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Time-course studies were performed for 28xa0d and 49xa0d, respectively. Main transformation routes of (14)C-prosulfocarb were mineralization to (14)CO2 and formation of nonextractable residues amounting to 12.13% and 10.43%, respectively, after 28xa0days (soil), and 9.40% and 11.98%, respectively, after 49xa0d (sediment-water system). Traces of prosulfocarbsulfoxide were detected by means of TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS; other transformation products were not found. Initial extraction of soil assays using 0.01xa0M CaCl2 solution showed that the bioavailability of the herbicide was considerably low; immediately after application (0.1xa0d of incubation), only 4.78% of applied radioactivity were detected in this aqueous fraction. DT50 values of (14)C-prosulfocarb estimated from radio-TLC and -HPLC analyses were above 28xa0d in soil and ranged between 29xa0d and 49xa0d in the sediment-water system. Partitioning of (14)C from water to sediment phase occurred with DT50 slightly above 2xa0d. With regard to the sediment-water system, adsorption occurred with log Koc = 1.38 (calculated from 2xa0day assays) and 2.35 (49xa0d assays). As similarly estimated from portions of (14)C found in CaCl2 extracts of the 0.1xa0d assays, (14)C-prosulfocarb's log Koc in soil was 2.96. With both experiments, similar portions of nonextractable radioactivity were associated with all soil organic matter fractions, i.e. nonhumics, fulvic acids, humic acids, and humin/minerals. Throughout all sample preparation, the experiments were severely impaired by losses of radioactivity especially with concentration of samples containing water in vacuo. All findings pointed to volatility of parent prosulfocarb in presence of water rather than volatility of transformation products. According to literature data, this behavior of prosulfocarb was not expected, though volatility was demonstrated under field conditions.

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Prosulfocarb, PESTANAL®, analytical standard