Thrombosis and haemostasis

The anti-inflammatory vasostatin-2 attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice and inhibits monocyte/macrophage recruitment.

PMID 27831589


We showed previously that reduced level of vasostatin-2 (VS-2) correlates to the presence and severity of coronary artery disease. In this study, we aimed to figure out the role of chromogranin A (CGA) derived VS-2 in the development of atherosclerosis and monocyte/macrophage recruitment. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited attenuated lesion size by 65 % and 41 % in En face and aortic root Oil red O staining, MOMA-2 positive area by 64 %, respectively, in VS-2 treatment group compared with PBS group. Proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were all remarkably reduced in aortic tissues after VS-2 treatment. Mechanistically, in adhesion assay using intravital microscopy in vivo, VS-2 suppressed the number of leukocytes adhering to the wall of apoE(-/-) mice mesenteric arteries. In chemotactic assay, flow cytometry analysis of peritoneal lavage exudate from C57BL/6 mice showed VS-2 significantly decreased the recruiment number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages in a thioglycollate-induced peritonitis model. Furthermore, fewer fluorescent latex beads labelled Ly-6C(hi) monocytes accumulated in aortic sinus lesions of apoE(-/-) mice after VS-2 treatment. In addition, according to the microarray of human monocyte/macrophage, we found VS-2 stimulation caused a dose-dependent decrease of Rac1 expression and inactivation of Pak1 in mice primary monocytes as well as THP-1 cells and inhibited MCP-1/CCL-5 induced transmigration in vitro. In conclusion, the Chromogranin A-derived VS-2 attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice and, in addition to its anti-inflammatory property, also acts as an inhibitor in monocyte/macrophage recruitment.

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CD46 human, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥85% (SDS-PAGE)