European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences

Activation of GPER ameliorates experimental pulmonary hypertension in male rats.

PMID 27836751


Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling that leads to pulmonary congestion, uncompensated right-ventricle (RV) failure, and premature death. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is cardioprotective in male rats and that its activation elicits vascular relaxation in rats of either sex. To study the effects of GPER on the cardiopulmonary system by the administration of its selective agonist G1 in male rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH. Rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of MCT (60mg/kg) for PH induction. Experimental groups were as follows: control, MCT+vehicle, and MCT+G1 (400μg/kg/daysubcutaneous). Animals (n=5pergroup) were treated with vehicle or G1 for 14days after disease onset. Activation of GPER attenuated exercise intolerance and reduced RV overload in PH rats. Rats with PH exhibited echocardiographic alterations, such as reduced pulmonary flow, RV hypertrophy, and left-ventricle dysfunction, by the end of protocol. G1 treatment reversed these PH-related abnormalities of cardiopulmonary function and structure, in part by promoting pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, Ca2+ handling regulation and reduction of inflammation in cardiomyocytes, and a decrease of collagen deposition by acting in pulmonary and cardiac fibroblasts. G1 was effective to reverse PH-induced RV dysfunction and exercise intolerance in male rats, a finding that have important implications for ongoing clinical evaluation of new cardioprotective and vasodilator drugs for the treatment of the disease.