International forum of allergy & rhinology

Prevention of sinonasal inflammation by a synthetic glycosaminoglycan.

PMID 27863138


Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are polysaccharides that are distributed on respiratory epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and submucosal glands. Uniquely positioned, certain GAGs exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in respiratory diseases and serve important roles in repairing mucosal surfaces and modulating mucociliary clearance. We hypothesized that topical administration of a synthetic GAG (GM-0111) would prevent sinonasal inflammation in a mouse model of rhinosinusitis (RS). To test our hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were intranasally administered fluorescent GM-0111, and sinonasal tissues were examined for coating and penetration ability. To test therapeutic feasibility, mice (n = 6) were given GM-0111 or hyaluronic acid (HA; 800 μg dose) prior to inducing RS with inflammatory molecule LL-37 (115 μg dose). After 24 hours, sinonasal tissues were harvested for histological and biochemical analysis of inflammatory markers (inflammatory cell infiltration, lamina propria [LP] thickening, and neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase [MPO]) and cell death. GM-0111 was observed within sinonasal tissues 1 hour and 24 hours after intranasal administration, indicating rapid and effective coating and penetration. GM-0111 prevented sinonasal tissues from developing inflammatory changes, with significant reductions in mast cell infiltration (p < 0.05), LP thickening (p < 0.001), and MPO levels (p < 0.01) when compared to tissues treated with LL-37 and those pretreated with HA. GM-0111 reduced cell death within sinonasal tissues in contrast to LL-37-treated tissues. We report a new synthetic GAG (GM-0111) that uniformly coats and penetrates into the sinonasal mucosa to prevent sinonasal inflammation and cell death in a mouse model of RS.