The Journal of nutritional biochemistry

Increasing cAMP levels of preadipocytes by cyanidin-3-glucoside treatment induces the formation of beige phenotypes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

PMID 27865158


Obesity is a serious health problem and a major risk factor for the onset of several diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer. The conversion of white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes, also called beige or brite adipocytes, by pharmacological and dietary compounds has gained attention as an effective treatment for obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), a polyphenolic compound contained in black soybean, blueberry and grape, has several antiobesity effects. However, there are no reports on the role of Cy3G in the induction of differentiation of preadipocytes to beige adipocytes and corresponding phenotypes. Here, the formation of beige adipocyte phenotypes following treatment with Cy3G was evaluated using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cy3G induced phenotypic changes to white adipocytes, such as increased multilocular lipid droplets and mitochondrial content. Additionally, the expression of mitochondrial genes (TFAM, SOD2, UCP-1 and UCP-2), UCP-1 protein and beige adipocyte markers (CITED1 and TBX1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased by Cy3G. Furthermore, Cy3G promoted preadipocyte differentiation by up-regulating of C/EBPβ through the elevation of the intracellular cAMP levels. These results indicated that Cy3G elevates the intracellular cAMP levels, which induces beige adipocyte phenotypes. This is the first report on the effect of Cy3G on induction of differentiation of preadipocytes into beige adipocyte phenotypes.

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4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)imidazolidin-2-one, solid