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Journal of medicinal food

Characterization of Macrophage-Activating Polysaccharide Isolated from Fermented Brown Rice.


PMID 27875657

Abstract

Brown rice has nutritional benefits due to its abundant nutrients and high dietary fiber content. However, it is often consumed in a fermented form for improved chewy texture and digestibility. In this study, a polysaccharide, FBR-4a, was isolated from fermented brown rice and its chemical composition was analyzed. In addition, its immune-stimulating activity was determined using RAW264.7 cells. FBR-4a is a carbohydrate and consists of nine types of monosaccharides, including galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, mannose, fucose, xylose, glucose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid. FBR-4a increased the gene expression of iNOS and IL-6 and enhanced the production of immune-stimulatory molecules (nitric oxide [NO], IL-6, and TNF-α) in RAW264.7 cells. Western blot analysis showed that FBR-4a phosphorylated the mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-κB and c-Jun (major component of AP-1 transcription factor) in RAW264.7 cells, in a concentration-dependent manner. FBR-4a-induced IL-6 and NO production was completely suppressed by IκBα and JNK inhibition, but not by ERK and p38 inhibition. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-Jun was also suppressed by IκBα and JNK inhibition. These findings suggest that FBR-4a isolated from fermented brown rice has immune potentiation activity on macrophages through IκBα and JNK signaling pathways, which play a central role in IL-6 and NO production.

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