Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry

Nitric oxide-polyamines cross-talk during dormancy release and germination of apple embryos.

PMID 27890695


Nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines (PAs) belong to plant growth and development regulators. These compounds play a key role in numerous physiological processes e.g. seed germination. Based on the suggestion of overlapping of NO and PAs biosynthetic pathways, we demonstrated a cross-talk of NO and PAs in regulation of embryonic dormancy release. The aim of the work was to investigate an impact of PAs (Put, Spd and Spm) or NO short-term fumigation on nitrite, urea, Arg and ornithine (Orn) content, NO synthase-like (NOS-like) and arginase activity in axes of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos during dormancy alleviation and at the stage of termination of germination sensu stricto. NO, Put/Spd induced dormancy breakage and germination of apple embryos corresponded to stimulation of urea cycle and high free Arg pool in seedlings roots. After two days of the culture Put and Spd stimulated Arg dependent NO formation, inhibition of which was observed after Spm application. Put or Spd application as well as NO short-term pretreatment of apple embryos influenced level of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins. Higher abundance of such modified proteins correlated well to the declined content of nitrated proteins, suggesting their important role in regulation of embryo germination. NO led to stimulation of embryos germination by increasing level of free PAs (mostly Put). While transcriptomic approach showed down regulation of Spm synthesis and up-regulation of Spm degradation by NO, confirming negative role of Spm over-accumulation in embryo dormancy removal. Our data clearly indicate positive relationship of NO-Put/Spd acting as dormancy removing factors.