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Carcinogenesis

Comparative histomorphometric changes in SENCAR mouse epidermis in response to multiple treatments with complete and stage-specific tumor promoting agents.


PMID 2791204

Abstract

Responses of various cells of the epidermis and dermis to topically applied agents have been implicated in the mechanism of multistage mouse tumorigenesis. These responses have been discussed almost entirely in the context of a single promoter treatment, although tumor expression is dependent on multiple applications. Responses of keratinocytes, epidermal dendritic non-keratinocytes and dermal leukocytes were therefore recorded following multiple topical applications of the potent complete tumor-promoting agent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In order to assess the importance of the response of individual cell types to the mechanisms and stages of promotion, responses to TPA were compared with those to agents with low complete promoting activity, but significant activity in individual stages of multistage promotion models. These included 4-O-methyl-TPA, a stage 1 promoting agent, mezerein and n-dodecane, stage 2 promoting agents of apparently different mechanism of action, and ethyl phenylpropiolate (EPP), a highly inflammatory stage 3 promoting agent. In agreement with previous findings, TPA induced a persistent epidermal hyperplasia and an increase in dark keratinocytes, although a similar finding was made for EPP and n-dodecane. The response to n-dodecane was significantly delayed, however, and that to EPP was accompanied by focal epidermal destruction and inflammation. The response to n-dodecane contrasted with that found for mezerein, supporting the suggestion that their mechanisms of action are distinct. Multiple treatments of 4-O-methylTPA caused no increase in dark cells, and mezerein induced no increase in numbers of pyknotic cells, whereas increases were expected in both cases on the basis of single dose experiments. Of the agents examined, only TPA induced a decrease in pale dendritic epidermal cells in the absence of marked toxicity, supporting the previous proposal that prolonged effects on this cell type are important in the promotion process. Some degree of persistent dermal leukocyte infiltration was observed with all agents excepting 4-O-methylTPA, although the extent of the response and its cellular characteristics appeared strongly dependent on the agent applied. In the case of TPA small mononuclear cells, neutrophils and macrophages all provided significant contributions to the total infiltrate. A similar phenomenon was observed with n-dodecane and EPP, with an additional increase in eosinophils which was not observed with TPA. Mezerein differed from both TPA and n-dodecane in inducing a significant increase only in eosinophils. As reported previously for single applications, prolonged TPA application caused a change in morphology and a considerable decrease in numbers of Thy-1+ epidermal dendritic cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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E45309
Ethyl phenylpropiolate, 98%
C11H10O2