Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany)

Genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy mitigated NSAID-associated gastric damages.

PMID 27913816


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (a cyclooxygenase-2-independent mechanism) and consequent autophagic cell death are responsible for NSAID-associated gastric damage. Therefore, alleviating cytotoxicity executed via ER stress and autophagy can be a strategy to prevent NSAID-associated gastric damage. Here, we explored whether genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy can mitigate NSAID-associated gastric damage in in vitro and in vivo models. To examine the effects of genetic inhibition of NSAID-associated autophagy, we administered indomethacin to RGM1 gastric mucosal cells transfected with shPERK, siLC3B, or shATG5 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B knock-out (LC3B(-/-)) mice. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) or chloroquine (CQ) was used for pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy in both models. Indomethacin administration increased the expression of ER stress proteins including GRP78, ATF6, and CHOP. Indomethacin provoked the appearance of autophagic vesicles with the increased expression of ATG5 and LC3B-II. Genetic ablation of various ER stress genes significantly attenuated indomethacin-induced autophagy and apoptosis (pxa0