Fusarium species causing eumycetoma: Report of two cases and comprehensive review of the literature.

PMID 27928841


Recently, mycetoma was added to the World Health Organization's list of neglected tropical disease priorities. Fusarium as a genus has been reported to cause eumycetoma, but little is known about the species involved in this infection and their identification. In this study, molecular tools were applied to identify Fusarium agents from human eumycetoma cases. The partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene was used as diagnostic parameter. Two additional cases of eumycetoma, due to F.xa0keratoplasticum and F.xa0pseudensiforme, respectively, are presented. A systematic literature review was performed to assess general features, identification, treatment and outcome of eumycetoma infections due to Fusarium species. Of the 20 reviewed patients, the majority (75%) were male. Most agents belonged to the F.xa0solani species complex, ie F.xa0keratoplasticum, F.xa0pseudensiforme, and an undescribed lineage of F.xa0solani. In addition, F.xa0thapsinum, a member of Fusarium fujikuroi species complex was encountered. The main antifungal drugs used were itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B, but cure rates were low (15%). Partial response or relapse was observed in some cases, and a case ended in amputation. Clinical management of eumycetoma due to Fusarium is complex and combination therapy might be required to increase cure rates.

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Glass beads, unwashed, 212-300 μm (50-70 U.S. sieve)