The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism

Dual Effects of a RETN Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) at -420 on Plasma Resistin: Genotype and DNA Methylation.

PMID 27929711


We previously reported that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-420 C>G (rs1862513) in the promoter region of RETN was associated with type 2 diabetes. Plasma resistin was tightly correlated with SNP-420 genotypes. SNP-420 is a CpG-SNP affecting the sequence of cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotides. To examine whether methylation at SNP-420 affects plasma resistin, we analyzed plasma resistin and methylation at RETN SNP-420. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral white blood cells in 2078 Japanese subjects. Quantification of the methylation was performed by pyrosequencing after DNA bisulfite conversion. Methylation at SNP-420 was highest in the C/C genotype (36.9 ± 5.7%), followed by C/G (21.4 ± 3.5%) and G/G (2.9 ± 1.4%; P < 0.001). When assessed in each genotype, methylation at SNP-420 was inversely associated with plasma resistin in the C/C (β = -0.134, P < 0.001) or C/G (β = -0.227, P < 0.001) genotype. In THP-1 human monocytes intrinsically having the C/C genotype, a demethylating reagent, 5-aza-dC, decreased the methylation at SNP-420 and increased RETN messenger RNA. SNP+1263 (rs3745369), located in the 3' untranslated region of RETN, was also associated with methylation at SNP-420. In addition, highly sensitive C-reactive protein was inversely associated with methylation at SNP-420 in the C/C genotype, whereas body mass index was positively associated. Plasma resistin was inversely associated with the extent of methylation at SNP-420 mainly dependent on the SNP-420 genotype. The association can also be explained partially independent of SNP-420 genotypes. SNP-420 could have dual, genetic and epigenetic effects on plasma resistin.