Maternal vitamin D biomarkers are associated with maternal and fetal bone turnover among pregnant women consuming controlled amounts of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus.

PMID 27939956


Vitamin D plays a central role in calcium homeostasis; however, its relationship with bone turnover during pregnancy remains unclear due to a lack of studies that have rigorously controlled for vitamin D and other nutrients known to influence bone metabolism. Similarly, prior investigations of the effect of pregnancy on bone turnover relative to the nonpregnant state may have been confounded by varying intakes of these nutrients. Nested within a controlled intake study, the present investigation sought to quantify associations between maternal vitamin D biomarkers and biochemical markers of bone turnover among pregnant (versus nonpregnant) women and their fetuses under conditions of equivalent and adequate intakes of vitamin D and related nutrients. Changes in markers of bone turnover across the third trimester were also examined. Healthy pregnant (26-29 wk gestation; n=26) and nonpregnant (n=21) women consumed 511IU vitamin D/d, 1.6g calcium/d, and 1.9g phosphorus/d for 10weeks while participating in a controlled feeding study featuring two choline doses. Based on linear mixed models adjusted for influential covariates (e.g., BMI, ethnicity, and season), pregnant women had 50-150% higher (P<0.001) concentrations of bone resorption markers than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, increases in maternal 25(OH)D across the study period were associated (P<0.020) with lower osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline at study-end, and higher fetal osteocalcin. In addition, maternal free 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)